Fiberglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be randomly arranged, flattened into a sheet called a chopped strand mat, or woven into glass cloth. The plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most often based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinyl ester resin—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, non-magnetic, non-conductive, transparent to electromagnetic radiation, can be molded into complex shapes, and is chemically inert under many circumstances. Applications include aircraft, boats , automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, roofing, pipes, cladding, orthopedic casts, surfboards, and external door skins. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) or GFK (from German: Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff). Because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is also called fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP). This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete fiber-reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it. Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer is a similar composite material in which the reinforcement fiber is carbon fibers.
GRP pipe is also called glass fiber wound sand pipe (RPM pipe). It mainly uses glass fiber and its products as reinforcing materials, unsaturated polyester resins and epoxy resins with polymer components as basic materials, and inorganic non-metallic particulate materials such as quartz sand and calcium carbonate as fillers as main raw materials. The standard effective length of the tube is 6m and 12m, and its production methods include fixed-length winding process, centrifugal casting process and continuous winding process. It can be classified according to the product's process method, pressure grade PN and stiffness grade SN. Reinforced plastic with glass fiber or its products as reinforcing material. It is called glass fiber reinforced plastic, or glass fiber reinforced plastic. Due to the different types of resins used, it is known as polyester fiberglass, epoxy fiberglass and phenolic fiberglass. Glass is hard and brittle, with good transparency, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance and other properties; at the same time, steel is hard and not brittle, and also has the characteristics of high temperature resistance. So people began to think that if a material could be made that not only has the hardness, high temperature resistance, and corrosion resistance of glass, but also has the characteristics of being as hard and unbreakable as steel, then this material will be very useful. After research and experiments, people finally produced such a composite material. It is a glass steel pipe that can stand shoulder to shoulder with steel. GRP pipes are widely used in petroleum, electric power, oil, electricity, electric It has been widely used in chemical industry, papermaking, urban water supply and drainage, factory sewage treatment, seawater desalination, gas transmission and other industries.
Pipe ramming (sometimes also called pipe jacking) is a trenchless method for installation of steel pipes and casings. Distances of 30 m (150 feet) or more and over 1,500 mm (60 inches) in diameter are common, although the method can be used for much longer and larger installations. The method is useful for pipe and casing installations under railway lines and roads, where other trenchless methods could cause subsidence or heaving. The majority of installations are horizontal, although the method can be used for vertical installations. The main differences between pipe ramming and pipe jacking are that pipe ramming uses percussion and does not have a navigation system, while pipe jacking uses hydraulic jacks and does have an active navigation system. Pipe ramming is preferable for shorter distances and applications that do not require tight directional control, such as cable installations. The method uses pneumatic percussive blows to drive the pipe through the ground. The leading edge of the pipe is almost always open, and is typically closed only when smaller pipes are being installed. The shape allows a small overcut (to reduce friction between the pipe and soil and improve load conditions on the pipe), and directs the soil into the pipe interior instead of compacting it outside the pipe. These objectives are usually achieved by attaching a soil-cutting shoe or special bands to the pipe.
Plastic pipe is a tubular section, or hollow cylinder, made of plastic. It is usually, but not necessarily, of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow—liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipes are far stiffer per unit weight than solid members. Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air, irrigation, plastic pressure pipe systems, and vacuum system applications. Based on the standard polyvinyl chloride material, three other variants are in use. One variant called OPVC, or PVCO pipe, represents an important landmark in the history of plastic pipe technology. This molecular-oriented bi-axial high performance version combines higher strength with extra impact resistance. A ductile variant is the MPVC, polyvinyl chloride modified with acrylics or chlorinated PE. This more ductile material with high fracture resistance is used in higher-demand applications where resistance against cracking and stress corrosion is important. In several studies the long track record of uPVC pipes has been investigated. Recent investigations at the German KRV and the Dutch TNO have confirmed that uPVC water pressure pipes, when installed correctly have a useful life span of over 100 years.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a thermoplastic polymer produced from the monomer ethylene. It is sometimes called "alkathene" or "polythene" when used for HDPE tubes. With a high strength-to-density ratio, HDPE is used in the production of plastic bottles, corrosion-resistant piping, geomembranes and plastic lumber. HDPE is commonly recycled, and has the number "2" as its resin identification code. The physical properties of HDPE can vary depending on the molding process that is used to manufacture a specific sample; to some degree, a determining factor is the international standardized testing methods employed to identify these properties for a specific process. For example, in rotational molding, to identify the environmental stress crack resistance of a sample, the notched constant tensile load test (NCTL) is put to use. Owing to these desirable properties, pipes constructed out of HDPE are ideally applicable for drinking water and waste water (storm and sewage).
Continuous winding GRP pipes are used in drinking water transmission trunk pipes and water distribution pipes, sewage pipes, rainwater pipes, and agricultural irrigation pipes. Quartz sand fiber winding glass fiber reinforced plastic pipe is in the process of fiber winding, using the reinforcing layer to sandwich the quartz sand into it, so that it has a sandwich structure.
This not only reduces the comprehensive cost of the FRP pipeline, but also improves the overall rigidity and strength of the pipeline. The laminated structure of quartz sand-filled pipeline consists of four parts: inner lining layer, transition layer, structural layer and outer surface layer. FRP sand pipe is reliable, safe and economical. Mainly used for buried pipes and long-distance pipelines, it has the characteristics of light weight and high strength, corrosion resistance, long service life, low operation and maintenance costs, etc., which can save a lot of money for construction projects.